Monday, August 24, 2020
Theme is encased in the portrayal - Essay Example bes spins around circumstances when the sovereign state needs to call upon the quality of its residents to give the state and its kin the insurance it needs. In perilous circumstances, a sound vain person would probably not hazard his life for the insurance of the sovereign state. Be that as it may, on the off chance that such assurance isn't given by the residents, at that point the state will return to a condition of nature. Also, our lives would be relinquish if the sets of the state are not followed and security isn't given to the state by the objective braggart. This paper will be a basic examination paper on HobbesÃ¢â¬â¢ recently referenced articulation. This examination will explain the position being inspected, will expand contentions possibly in support of the situation being referred to, will cautiously evaluate the sufficiency and quality of the contentions by thinking about potential reactions, counter-contentions, or counter-models, and offer this studentÃ¢â¬â¢s own appraisal of where the contentions for and against the position being viewed as leave us Ã¢â¬ and is we ought to acknowledge, dismiss, or stay impartial in regards to this direction or position. The situation in HobbesÃ¢â¬â¢ explanation is on the best way to bring consistency into his contention or if consistency is even conceivable in his announcement. On the off chance that consistency is to be brought to his announcement, is a condition of nature unavoidable? Hobbes is by all accounts pushing that a sane man isn't committed to render administration to the state so as to help ensure sovereign interests. The situation in Hobbes proclamation can be expressed in the inquiry Ã¢â¬ for what reason would a sound self seeker give up his power in the condition of nature? (Stanford University Press Ã¢â¬Å"Social OrderÃ¢â¬ ). A levelheaded prideful person would work through the rationale of taking a chance with his life and appendage so as to ensure the state. He would ponder and inquire as to whether his penance would merit the forced risk on his life. The vain person in him would do everything to dodge risk and torment. He would consider approaches to spare himself,
Posted by Ken Norwood at 7:33 PM
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Hierarchical Chart Essay Staff Training Crew Members Crew Members Website Designers Website Designers Delivery Staff Delivery Staff Customer Service Customer Service Cleaners A hierarchical diagram shows the primary pieces of the association, and the connection between the different parts. McDonaldsÃ¢â¬â¢ hierarchical graph is hierarchal. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s likewise tall since it has multiple levels. The motivation behind why this is a tall structure is on the grounds that McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s is a major organization with eateries everywhere throughout the world, so they need individuals in each nation to ensure that the organizations is gaining benefit and ground. Authoritative structure Organizational structure set out significant parts of how correspondence will occur. For instance: administrators, bosses and colleagues would answer to ranking directors where they would answer to top managerial staff. Likewise top managerial staff sets out the methodology, at that point ranking directors are offering focuses to staff that works in McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s so they can accomplish them. The reason for authoritative structure is to share the work so everybody comprehends what they are doing and to build up lines of control and correspondence. McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s isolated individuals into: supervisors, group pioneers, staff preparing team, cleaners, client support, eatery administrator, and so on. It assists with controlling authoritative exercises. Kinds of authoritative structure: * Geographical zone: McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s has its cafÃ©s everywhere throughout the world. So as to make it work they needed to enlist individuals to maintain the business in each nation that they work. * Function: Span of control Span control is the measure of workers an administrator has direct line authority over. Hierarchical graph MacMillan Cancer Support
Posted by Ken Norwood at 2:02 AM
Thursday, July 23, 2020
Top 10 Tips for Communicating With Us No.5 When leaving a voicemail, speak slowly and state your telephone number twice COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY - SIPA Admissions Blog
Top 10 Tips for Communicating With Us No.5 When leaving a voicemail, speak slowly and state your telephone number twice COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY - SIPA Admissions Blog Updated: March 2016 This is the fifth entry in our âTop 10? list for you to consider when communicating with our office and applying. Number 5 â" When leaving a voicemail, speak slowly and state your telephone number twice As much as we would like to answer every call someone makes to our office, sometimes all of our lines are in use, and you will be put through to voicemail. Also, sometimes there is static or background noise, and we may not be able to clearly hear your message. Speaking slowly and stating your telephone number twice will help ensure that we can get back you. Our recommendation is actually to email our office rather than leave a voicemail. We can check email much more quickly and can provide very detailed information in email messages. And we do not have to worry about time zones (see bonus tip below). Also, if you are a current or incoming student, please give all identifying information, especially your University ID (UNI) or CUID. It is difficult to follow up on a financial aid query that is specific to you without this information. Going back to tip No. 1, we also recommend using the same email address each time you contact us. It is also helpful to compile a list of questions prior to calling our office and after checking the website. We can work with you to answer all of your questions but the process is often more streamlined if you know beforehand what information you are looking for. Bonus Tip: If leaving a voicemail message, also state your city and country (for time zone purposes). We get applications from over 100 countries each year, and people call from all over the world. Stating your location will assist us, however this is another reason we recommend email â" we can respond any time and possibly will not wake you when calling at what may be business hours for us, and sleeping hours for you.
Posted by Ken Norwood at 6:40 PM
Friday, May 22, 2020
The researcher states that Allen Park Power Limited deals with generation, transmission, distribution and retailing of the electricity. The company has a fully-fledged supply chain department that is headed by a director of Supply Chain Management. The unit is accountable for managing all the materials and services which the company in all the on-going operations requires. The business unit also has a role of ensuring that all the construction activities for transmission and distribution are done as per the specification and needs of the company. The department oversees the supplies management and transportation of goods both to the company and outside the company. In ensuring efficiency in Allen Park Power Limited supply chain, the company uses both in-sourced and outsourced services. The company outsources all the services of power plant construction from Engineering, Procurement and Construction Firms (EPC). The outsourced firms conduct inventory management and the control of the entire chain and sourcing of the materials used in constructing new power plants. This helps the company to concentrate on its main goals of producing electricity rather than building electricity plants. Currently, the company is considering outsourcing many complimentary services, for example, the company is planning to outsource business related information system. We will write a custom essay sample on Supply Chain System at Allen Park Power Limited or any topic specifically for you Only $17.96 $11.86/pageorder now The system will help the company in having an efficient electronic record for its accounting, stock-taking, and supply chain management. The company is currently using the manure recorded taking system in projections and data taking. The computerized system will help the company to effectively control and manage the whole supply chain from need recognition to service delivery to the end user. In the year 2006, the company made alliances with other companies for the supply of transformers, miscellaneous electric hardware, cable and wire and utility electric hardware. The company used to tender the supply of these materials on a yearly basis.
Posted by Ken Norwood at 4:59 AM
Thursday, May 7, 2020
Casondra Garrison Eng. 207 Mrs. Whetstine Cultural Analysis Media Influenced in American Culture Back in the 1920s people had receive news and entertainment through the radio, which then in turn out-shined newspapers and magazines. Now dayÃ¢â¬â¢s social media sites have become the most popular form to get the news and information. The biggest tool in the media that generates revenue by the millions every day, is advertising. The media has its way of showing us constructive information when it comes to news channels, travel and other educational shows. (Curtis). Kids benefit from watching these, since it can boost self-esteem, heighten interest levels in a particular subject, or encourage them to ask relevant questions. There are allot of contemporary controversies over freedom of information by exploring such crucial formative issues as freedom of the press, intellectual property, privacy, public access to information, and the shaping of specific technologies and institutions (Starr). We have a sense of what is happening around us, with a fair insight about how things work elsewhere on the globe. We can view the world through the television, even if we are rooted in one spot the whole time. It is a getaway to places unknown, foreign, and magical with knowledge of what goes on around us without being physically present in that place. The media in all its forms can introduce us to creative outlets that can help us better ourselves in different ways, be it in our personal or workShow MoreRelatedRape Culture And Its Effect On Society1532 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesRape culture is all around us; it lurks in advertisement, television shows, and movies, itÃ¢â¬â¢s even in our language objectifying womenÃ¢â¬â¢s bodies. Rape culture is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"an environment in which rape is prevalent and in which sexual violence against women is normalized and excused in the media and popular cultureÃ¢â¬ (marshall.edu). Something to keep in mind, the term is called Ã¢â¬Å"rape cultureÃ¢â¬ for a reason. Ã¢â¬Å"CultureÃ¢â¬ is defined in anthropological terms as learned behaviors that are passed on from generationRead MoreKurt Cobain ( 1967-1994 ) Essay1194 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesgrunge rock band Nirvana from 1987 to his death in 1994. Along with bassist Krist Novoselic and drummer Dave Grohl (who was the bandÃ¢â¬â¢s third and final drummer) changed the concepts of hard rock, punk, and heavy metal: and brought it to mainstream media. Before his rise to fame, Cobain had a rough childhood from his parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ divorcing to being bullied in school. According to Biography.com: He[Cobain] excelled at drawing, so much so that his talents were even apparent in kindergarten. He also learnedRead MoreAttachment Theory Is Defined As The Emotional And Psychological1611 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe first published works of attachment theory were done by John Bowlby, a child psychiatrist, in 1969, with Mary Ainsworth, a Canadian psychologist, later collaborating with Bowlby to include different attachment types. BowlbyÃ¢â¬â¢s theory, which was influenced from Konrad LorenzÃ¢â¬â¢s idea of familial imprinting, stated that attachment bonds would begin to form up until nine months of age in an infant. From nine months, up until two to three years of age, attachment types would be observable (Arxcis, 2017)Read MoreAdvantages and Disadvantages of Nonverbal Communication in School1661 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesthat can be utilized to manage conflict in the workplace. Advantages and Disadvantages of Nonverbal Communication in School Introduction Ã¢â¬Å"People cannot live without each other, we are social beingsÃ¢â¬ (Marwijk). Students from different levels and cultures love to hang out with each other thus using different nonverbal communication which may build or break up relationships because of misunderstood actions. Usually body language occurs unconsciously. Yet the body language we use decides to a largeRead MoreBio Psycho Social Spiritual Cultural Analysis1705 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesas interconnected. In recent years the spiritual dimension has also gained popularity in research and recognition as being inseparable from other dimensions of personhood. Culture is also seen as a powerful environmental dimension that demands acknowledgment to truly gain insight into a personÃ¢â¬â¢s worldview. The following is a brief summary of these dimensions in regards to youths experiencing bullying. I will start by describing the biological dimensions of bullying victims, perpetrators, and bully-victimsRead MoreAs A Kid, I Can Vividly Remember Sitting In The Back Of1988 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesin rap, as well as the story that can be told through it, and have developed an interest in its history. Since about the 1980s, specific areas in our country, such as New York and Southern California, have developed the foundations for hip hop culture and music. From the early successes of groups such as NWA, through rappers like Tupac Shakur, these regions of the United States have continued to consistently provide new rap music, with an additional deeper message, sometimes commenting on politicsRead MoreTexas Government And The State Of A New Law Essay2244 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesinto the topics because for every work I did took a more direct approaches to the topic and also the book did give good examples to take from their or to check the website for guidance and see different periods of time on how all the people have influenced how Texas run in this actual time . One of the ten points that I found really interesting in the class was how in chapter one and two explained the importance of the 19th and 20th-century influence the Texas constitution that we have until thisRead MoreThe Revolution Of The American Revolution1894 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesAmerica has always been a hodge-podge of a multitude of different cultures from around the world, somehow settling into a new sort of culture all its own. Whether that new culture transformed into a sort of Ã¢â¬Å"cultural mosaicÃ¢â¬ of the diverse cultures or a Ã¢â¬Å"melting pot,Ã¢â¬ meaning one American culture to assimilate into, has been widely contested for generations. Almost a century ago, Theodore Roosevelt notes some Revolutionary War-era immigrants as being Ã¢â¬Å"the best immigrants we have ever received; soonerRead MorePowerful Mass Media Campaigning On Canada1995 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesPowerful Mass-Media Campaigning in Canada The media has never had the extreme omnipresence it had during the most recent federal elections. For more and more people the media is becoming something habitual, and politicians were among the first to take advantage of this fact. Be it a parties usage of online social platforms, 24-hour news broadcasting stations, or circa the 1800s printed word, there is no doubt the typical citizen feels connected in some regards to this mass of media. With most third-partyRead MoreAnnotated Bibliography4273 Words Ã |Ã 18 Pagessystem. He notes that there were several influential people charged with a reformation of the education system in Israel, namely John Dewey, Alexander Dushkin and Isaac Berkson. Although American with educational backgrounds rooted in the United States, their Ã¢â¬Å"ideas of social justice and social engineeringÃ¢â¬ were widely accepted in the Israeli Zionist community. Ackerman goes on to explain several similarities and differences between the Israeli and Ame rican educational systems. He notes that American
Posted by Ken Norwood at 12:21 AM
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The origin of the term emotional intelligence is from a book by Daniel Goleman in 1995 and this book has made it one of the hottest subjects to be discussed in corporate America. This led to an article in the Harvard Business Review two years ago, and that attracted more readers than all articles published in the magazine during the last 40 years. This had such an effect on the CEO of Johnson Johnson that he sent out the article to all 400 executives in the company. We will write a custom essay sample on The Term Emotional Intelligence by Daniel Goleman or any similar topic only for you Order Now (Emotional Intelligence: What it is and why it Matters) In the book, Goleman had divided the subject as consisting of five emotional competencies and these were to identify and name the emotional states of the person and to understand its link to emotions thought and action; to manage oneÃ¢â¬â¢s emotional states and thus to control emotions or to change unwanted emotional states into ones that could tackle the situation better; to get into emotional situations which were more likely to be connected with the drive to achieve and be successful; to read, be sensitive and thus influence emotions of other people; and finally to be able to start and maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships. In the theory of Goleman, these emotional competencies are built in a hierarchy, and one has to be able to find them out so that they can be managed. One of the important aspects is to be able to achieve drive to achieve emotional states. These abilities lead the person to the situation where he can achieve the objective of reading and influencing the emotions of other people in a positive manner. It is not that emotions do not exist and there are always feelings in our minds. This is not appreciated by organizations who value being rational, but not having emotional management. Emotional intelligence: Wikipedia, the free Encyclopedia) It is not enough to have the old fashioned cognitive intelligence to be successful at work, but it also needs the capacity in the person to stop negative emotions like anger and non-belief in one self. Instead the person should be capable of concentrating on congeniality and confidence. This is the belief of a new group of psychologists. This concept was first highlighted by Daniel Goleman in his book Ã¢â¬Å"Emotional Intelligence why it can matter more than IQÃ¢â¬ . He is still continuing on his work and the new book is Ã¢â¬Å"Working with Emotional IntelligenceÃ¢â¬ . In the book his concentration is on the use that emotional intelligence can be put at work and that is supposed to be managed more by intelligence than feelings. It has been seen that all types of people need emotional intelligence, and even the bosses who have to deal with a lot of people also need it a lot. (Does Ã¢â¬â¢emotional intelligenceÃ¢â¬â¢ matter in the workplace? ) This is also not like IQ which does not change much for the person, but this factor can be learnt, and probably some types of failures help build it up. As an example, one can take the case of J. K. Rowling who is the author of Harry Potter. She has certainly learnt a lot through experience as she was first divorced and then had to live separately with her children in Edinburgh. On top of that the first book that she had written, out of the ten books now, was rejected by the publishers. (Succeeding with Emotional Intelligence) Her experience certainly gave her a lot of emotional stress bearing capacity, and permitted her to wait enough to be able to finally bring out her best. So far as we are concerned, let us now take the case of a person who has just been appointed as a trainee manager and is very hot headed. This is most often an emotional intelligence problem. Let us find out how he can be guided to be a better manager. At the outset, one has to understand that emotional intelligence is a very difficult quality for evaluation. In school we have girls who are smart, well organized and industrious. She is also caring about other students in the class, but she is not liked by her classmates and her name is left out of all invitations. She gets to hear of the lunch plans, but is not invited. This trend continues even when she is working. Boys may have a similar situation and be so smart that they are liked by all the moms and dads in the area. He may be even smart enough to merit special schools, but is not able to continue. Finally he is compelled to take up menial jobs for survival. These examples tell us clearly not to depend on our emotions, as we are taught to believe that emotions are not Ã¢â¬Å"lifeÃ¢â¬ and give us a distorted view of life. When any question of emotions come up, it is viewed as being childish and the individual is thought of being a baby. When another child runs to help the afflicted child, we call the other child as being a baby. One can say clearly that our lives are determined by our intellectual capacity in our minds, but that is often not true in real life. We pride our capacity to memorize and solve problems, spell words and calculate mathematically. These capacities are reflected in the report card and decide the grades that we get. (Emotional Intelligence Training) When an individual is not able to perform well in these measures, he is considered to be Ã¢â¬Å"brainlessÃ¢â¬ , but that does not mean that all of them have no success in life later. This is not true for companies which today test the emotional intelligence of their employees, and many companies are already doing it. It is also true that different types of jobs require different types of emotional intelligence. A sales man requires the capacity to be able to judge the moods of the potential customers, and based on that, he has to decide when to try and sell and when to just keep quiet. On the other hand when a person is trying to become a painter or a professional tennis player, they have to gather up the capacity for a lot of self discipline and motivation. It is also seen that women have different capacities from men on certain emotional traits, and this information is based on large scale assessments of EQ. (Does Ã¢â¬â¢emotional intelligenceÃ¢â¬â¢ matter in the workplace? ) It is seen that, in general women have better measures of empathy and social responsibility but a lot less on self confidence and tolerance of stress. This requires women in many organizations to learn self confidence through the use of meditation, yoga and jogging. On the other side, the men have to learn listening to other workers and the customers, and thus understand their moods and gain their trust. These are also very important qualities of being a leader, being able to work in a team and maintain good relations with other workers. (Does Ã¢â¬â¢emotional intelligenceÃ¢â¬â¢ matter in the workplace? It is thus clear that the disability of our trainee manager is due to his being a Ã¢â¬Å"smartÃ¢â¬ boy and thus not learning enough of emotional qualities for being a successful manager. We can also see that this is not unusual among male managers. At the same time, it requires a lot of cognitive ability for any person to get admitted into a course of science. The high ability is required for just an admission into a course for any renowned school like Berkeley, but the question here is that once the admission process is over, then it becomes a question of keeping up with the other students in the course. That does not require a high IQ but requires more of a suitable social and emotional build up in the individual. This can be viewed in another way and that is a scientist probably requires an IQ of 120 or thereabouts to get a doctorate and then a job. At the same time, the individual should have the capacity to be able to get along with the colleagues and juniors, and that is probably as good as having another 10 or 15 points higher of IQ. (Emotional Intelligence: What it is and why it Matters) A somewhat similar situation exists for managers. It is not that they require a high intellectual capacity, but they have to have the capacity to get along well with others, and a manager without that capacity is likely to fail as a manager. To solve this problem in the trainee that we are talking about, an actor was put among the group of managers being trained. As a part of their training, the managers were given the task of jointly deciding on the bonus to be given to the subordinates for a particular period. The actor was the person among the group who spoke first and gave the future managers the initial ideas of solving the problem. Within the group with the problematic trainee, the actor projected a lot of cheer and enthusiasm, along with warmth about the employees. This brought about the transmission of a similar feeling to the group, including the trainee. This led good emotions among the group, and improved the cooperation, spirit of fairness and better group performance. This attitude among the managers led to a fairer distribution of money among the people and thus was of use to the organization. This activity also continued for some time, in other similar activities, and similar results were seen. In terms of emotional intelligence the required quality can be called empathy, and this has been known by the psychologists to contribute a lot to the success of individuals. (Emotional Intelligence: What it is and why it Matters) Let us look at the case of Aaron Feuerstein, and his Malden Mills Polartec factory, which was totally destroyed by fir in 1995. He personally paid the salaries of the workers for three months while the factory was rebuilt. (Succeeding with Emotional Intelligence) The importance of this quality was found out more than twenty years ago at Harvard by Rosenthal and others. They said that people who were good at identifying emotions of other people were more successful in work as also in the social aspects. This aspect was also found important among apparel sales representatives as their quality of empathy was given value by the retail sales buyers. It was reported in a survey that the buyers wanted representatives who could listen to them with patience and comprehend their difficulties and requirements. (Emotional Intelligence: What it is and why it Matters) It is important to understand that emotional competence refers to personal and social skills and those qualities lead to a better level of work. The capacity to understand the feelings of another person enables the first to develop a certain amount of influence on the second person. At the same time, people who are able to control or regulate their own emotions ultimately find it easier to develop qualities like Initiative or achievement drive. The entire concept of emotional intelligence has been developed over a long period of time. The development was through research and theoretical discussions on personality and social reactions, as well as psychology. This view was also accepted by Goleman. He has said clearly that that the abilities linked with emotional intelligence have been a part of the psychologists for a long period of time. (Emotional Intelligence: What it is and why it Matters) The managerÃ¢â¬â¢s and the supervisorsÃ¢â¬â¢ behavior as also their treatment of their sub-ordinates ultimately determine whether they stay or they leave. They have to look after the individual needs, wants and expectations of these people every day. That in turn affects the attitudes, performances and satisfaction of the employees. It involves great stress in leading so many people and meeting their needs and expectations all the time, while at the same time performing up to the requirements of the top management. It is said that two-fifths of the departures of people from an organization are due to an effective relationship among the employees and their immediate bosses. If there is no trust between them, then the performance is naturally inferior. All employees want support and care from the supervisor and manager, who at the same time has their best interests in mind. It is with this view that team leaders and project managers are viewed as being responsible for the environment at work where different types of people come to work, to achieve success on diverse jobs in a short period. The continuation of working in the political environment of organizations can lead to a lot of difficulties for the individual Ã¢â¬â frustration, anxiety, suspicion, resentment. This lets production fall behind schedule, and ultimately people leave the organization. (Who Needs Emotional Intelligence Skills) How to cite The Term Emotional Intelligence by Daniel Goleman, Essay examples
Posted by Ken Norwood at 9:19 AM
Monday, April 27, 2020
Structures and Agency Essay What is structure and agency? How does this framework help us in political analysis? For it is part and parcel of daily experience to feel both free and enchained, capable of shaping our own future and yet confronted by towering, seemingly impersonal constraints. Consequently in facing up to the problem of structure and agency social theorists are not just addressing crucial technical problems in the study of society, they are also confronting the most pressing social problem of the human condition. Ã¢â¬â¢1 Structure and agency is a key understanding mechanism within social science. The approach attempts to answer the question of action; how is it that I can do what I want with others when their goals are different, and often incompatible with mine? Prominent social scientists including Giddens and Archer have suggested that the Ã¢â¬ËStructure-AgencyÃ¢â¬â¢ question is the most important theoretical issue within the human sciences. This debate has been slower to make an impact on political science than on some other social science disciplines yet it has been argued that structure-agency questions should be recognised as central to the way we study politics. It can be argued that there is no Ã¢â¬ËescapeÃ¢â¬â¢ from issues of structure-agency. Hay argues: Ã¢â¬Å"Every time we construct, however tentatively, a notion of social, political or economic causality we appeal, whether explicitly or (more likely) implicitly, to ideas about structure and agency. Ã¢â¬ 2 The structure and agency can be regarded as crucial to an understanding of Social Sciences; it has at its base a fundamental question which humans have posed for a long time. This is an essentially normative question; are we free to act as we please, or are we shaped and governed by structures? We will write a custom essay sample on Structures and Agency specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Structures and Agency specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Structures and Agency specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Nobody would argue that structure controls us completely, but neither, in the post-modern world, are we completely free. It is prudent to first determine examine what we can understand by the terms Ã¢â¬ËstructureÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËagencyÃ¢â¬â¢. This paper will begin will deal with some definitions and summarise the position from both sides of the agency structure debate. By examining the case of the recent second Gulf War in Iraq, an analysis of the usefulness of the framework will be discussed to ascertain its validity in political analysis. The agency approach is sometimes twinned with methodological individualism, which argues that the only reality we can grasp is the deeds/actions of individuals, not classes. The approach suggests structural forces such as hegemony cannot be seen as real; they are intangible and thus we can say nothing provable about them. This implies an epistemology that we cannot look at classes to explain the behaviour of individuals. It is therefore quite a severe approach to the human sciences. Giddens suggests the actor is an embodied unit and as such, a possessor of causal powers that she may choose to employ to intervene (or not) into the ongoing sequence of events in the world. This makes her an agent. Giddens Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦define[s] action or agency as the stream of actual or contemplated causal interventions of corporeal beings in the ongoing process of events-in-the-world. Ã¢â¬ 3 It is analytical to the concept of agency that a person or agent Ã¢â¬Å"could have acted otherwise. Ã¢â¬ 4 This conception of the agent ties agency to power. Agency approaches see the individual as atomized, positting a voluntarist approach to human action. They argue that the context in which an individual lives is a pluralism; social power is spread between groups, and that no single group dominates. The way to analyse, therefore, is by looking at what the individual tells us there is an onus on reflexivity; on the individual being able to account for and be aware of the reasons and implications of their actions. This approach also pays attention to time. History is taken to be the outcome of freely chosen choices and self-determined deeds: the great man view of history which sees Napoleon, Hitler, Mussolini, Margaret Thatcher and Bush as figures that, through freewill and behaviour, changed the course of history. Extreme versions of this thinking hold that explanation of this is beyond human understanding. Critics of this approach claim that this is metaphysical although structure approaches give us a very one-dimensional view. Individualists would argue that we are richer as human beings than structure approach theories can predict. This is an overview of agency approaches, which are often lumped together with conservatism, claiming that there is freedom and that we succeed or fail by our own qualities and actions. Structure is essentially explanation in terms of the social/economic/political context in which action occurs. Structuralists deny that the human actor is the ultimate social reality, focussing instead on the situated human actor. Key concepts in this focus are emplacement and embodiment. A structure approach is often associated with the political left and theorists such as Smith and Marx. It argues that because conditions change through time and space then the great man theory doesnt work. Structuralist approaches recognise that there are specific conditions which produce human actions or behaviour. Essentially individuals are believed not to be atomised but acting as a result and through the constraints and structures in which they exist. Behaviour is then not a result of free will but a product of structural factors. In positing reasons for behaviour, you are beginning a structure approach: explaining action according to the structure/context in which it takes place. A structure approach would hold that individuals are situated actors in place and embodiment. We are embodied physically, defining out health, opportunities, life possibilities, etc. , and emplaced in terms of lifestyle, conditions, etc. Our actions therefore respond to the structures of one kind or another, in which we are situated. Another way of thinking about how structure changes us comes from the 19th century social scientist, Durkheim. An example comes from Durkheims work on suicide, which listed three categories in which suicide could occur: Egoistic: for reasons of self-dissatisfaction or in response to personal emotion. Altruistic: for the good of other people Anomic: because all structures have broken down and life no longer has meaning This shows that even in relation to this extreme decision, the individual does not act without reasons Ã¢â¬â reasons are taken in response to structures. Durkheims theory of social facts clarifies the relationship between structure and infrastructure. Structures have priority, externality and constrain, in relation to our behaviour. Structuralists reject pluralism: they argue that the atomized actor is the only actor we can know. We can therefore predict life chances according to structures such as class, race and gender. From a structuralist approach we can understand the relevance of the debate to politics. Structuralist Marxists would argue that human action and choice is determined by class. Society is composed of superstructure, what we can call civil society which includes things such as education, the arts and culture and substructure which is constituted of the material and economic base. Marx argued that the substructure defines the superstructure Ã¢â¬â clearly a structuralist and deterministic view of society and culture. Both levels, according to Marx, are controlled by a ruling class. Men make their own history, but not under circumstances of their own choosing. Marcuse, for example, argues that we do not live in a free society, but a one-dimensional one. There is no freedom, simply reproduction of the views of the ruling class. Similarly, structuralist feminism, of the 1960s, held patriarchy as the key structural influence. The work of Germaine Greer and Kate Millet reflects this. They saw the systematic exclusion and subordination of women from many aspects of the economy and society, and explained the position and behaviour of women through the structures set up by men. There are criticisms of this approach. Firstly, structuralist accounts underestimate the reflexivity and autonomy of human actions. They tend to concentrate on the individuals position in a hierarchy, and do not deal with the ambiguity and ambivalence of human experience. There is a skewed reality at work: they attribute too much power/influence to few structures. Marxists, for example, have been accused by feminists of ignoring gender as a structure. Furthermore, they postulate repetitive patterns of behaviour and therefore cannot explain how changes, for example Glasnost and the abandonment of Communism have occurred. Loyal and Barnes elucidate the key differences between structure and agency. They suggest Ã¢â¬Å"agency stands for Ã¢â¬Ëthe freedom of the contingently acting subject over and against the constraints that are thought to derive from enduring social structures. To the extent that human beings have agency, they may act independently of and in opposition to structural constraints, and/or may (re)constitute social structures through their freely chosen actions. To the extent that they lack agency, human beings are conceived of as automata, following the dictates of social structures and exercising no choice in what they do. That, at any rate, is the commonest way of contrasting agency and structure in the context of what has become known as the structure/agency debate. Ã¢â¬ 5 No current theorists would argue that either agency or structure are completely in control of our behaviour, although much is still influenced by this debate: most people today hold the view that agency and structure are enmeshed together. It is still a debate which informs how we think and research. A consequence of the abandonment of extreme positions is the new prevalence of postmodern thought, for which structure is no longer the complete answer. Stuart Hall, for example, admitted in the 1980s that we are living in new times, not defined by class, as in the Marxist approach of his work. Feminists have also accepted that patriarchy is not the sole reason for womens behaviour. Postmodernism has filled the vacuum. Postmodernism reflects the ambiguity and ambivalence of life, and suggests that structures such as class are discursive, representations of how life occurs, not real life. This is a thread in the work of Baudrillard, Barthes, Foucault and Derrida. Derridas work, for example, foregrounds the play of meaning in his differance which implies defer and differ. The point is that meaning is always deferred: there is never a final truth or fact, and reality is always being rewritten. This radically destabilises the idea of a shared reality, emphasising the elasticity of human experience and the need to look at life processually. Everything is moving, unfixed, unfastened, and there are no underlying fixed structures. Postmodernism also emphasises the need to be tolerant of other peoples viewpoints. It encourages multiculturalism. Another strand is Hybridity theory, which claims that everything is hybrid in some sense: that there is no purity. Consequently, no language or point of view is superior. Ã¢â¬Å"Giddens in the form of what he calls Ã¢â¬ËStructurationÃ¢â¬â¢ theory has set out to try and transcend the dualism of structure and agency. His basic argument is that, rather than representing different phenomena, they are mutually dependent and internally related. 6 Structure only exists through agency and agents have Ã¢â¬Ërules and resourcesÃ¢â¬â¢ between them which will facilitate or constrain their actions. These actions, can lead, in turn, to the reconstitution of the structure, defined as rules and resources, which will, in turn, affect future action. Thus, we have a close interrelationship between structure and agency. GiddensÃ¢â¬â¢ metaphor for this is that rather than being dist inct phenomena structure and agency are in fact two sides of the same coin. As such, we have a conception of the mutual constitution of structure and agency. As Taylor argues, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦this conception is the most distinctive feature of Ã¢â¬ËStructurationÃ¢â¬â¢ theory, yet a feature which serves crucially to undermine the theory as a whole. Ã¢â¬ 7 This approach combines the best of agency and structure approaches the actor is situated, but not clueless. This emphasises reflexivity, and assumes a high degree of self-awareness on the part of the actor, but also allows for the influence of structures and awareness of emplacement. Structuration theory is Giddens attempt to bridge the gap between theories which place emphasis on either structure or agency at the expense of the other. Structuralism represents one extreme on a continuum of theory in which social structures such as class, gender or race are seen as systems which are so pervasive through time and space that people have little or no choice but to operate within them. At the other end of the continuum, there is an emphasis is on the subjective individual, structures are seen as ephemeral; they are relative and secondary to agency. These extremes can be characterized as systems without actors in the case of the former, and actors without systems in the case of the latter. Giddens explains the relation between theses two extremes by offering a theory of structuration that: Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦provide[s] an account of human agency which recognizes that human beings are purposive actors, who virtually all the time know what they are doing (under some description) and why. At the same time [as understanding that] the actions of each individual are embedded in social contexts stretching away from his or her activities and which causally influence their nature. 8 Grasping the recursive nature of social practices the duality of structure Ã¢â¬â is according to Giddens, the key to achieving this. The study of politics largely concerns conceptions of power; Ã¢â¬Ëwho gets what, when and how. Ã¢â¬â¢9 We can understand the role of the state to include controlling and distributing limited resources which determines who benefits, and is included, and who does not benefit and is excluded. Structure and agency can assign responsibility for political actions; it is t he head of state or the political-economic environment that causes events and change? An acknowledgement of the structure agency debate allows us to acknowledge the influence of structures and agents in the political world. The structure agency debate cannot be seen as an approach to political analysis in the same way that rational choice theory might be. However, it is an important way of considering and analysing issues. Let us examine for example, the cause of the Second Gulf War in Iraq. Structure and agency debates will examine this with the approach of; were the actors involved free to make decisions independently of structures and so, as individuals, change the course of history? Or was it a situation in which structure was the predominant factor and the actions of the individuals involved was pre-ordained? From an agency perspective, there are clearly two actors who made key decisions which led to the conflict; George Bush and Saddam Hussein. We can understand that George Bush may have been inclined to go to war as he was simply following in his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s footsteps, attempting to finish off his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s unfinished business and trying to consolidate American hegemony. Similarly, we can see that Saddam Hussein was responsible for the conflict by his continued refusal to allow weapons inspectors to sites and his recalcitrance to convince the world that they were not harbouring terrorism and producing weapons of mass destruction. On the structure side of the debate we can see that there were factors of structure; Bush and Hussein were individuals acting in accordance with the structures they themselves may have been unaware of, so that these actors were situated in an environment which meant the course of action was inevitable. Some structural factors that could be considered would be; rising oil prices which, had they continued would have undoubtedly fuelled the recession and increased US domestic stability. Furthermore, instability in the region and the history of Iraqi development of banned weapons and expelled weapons inspectors meant that in a structural sense, there was a sense of inevitability of the conflict. The issue of hegemony could also be regarded as a structuralist consideration as it pervades both economy and culture; it is the field on which the game is played. In providing an explanatory framework for political analysis, postmodernism is largely defunct. Postmodernist accounts of structure and agency reduce it to a discourse in which structure and agency are no more than arbitrary discursive constructs. In the case of war in Iraq we can see that this is a gross oversimplification. However, we can clearly see that these phenomena Ã¢â¬â Saddam, Bush, oil, terrorism and political stability are very much Ã¢â¬Ëout thereÃ¢â¬â¢ with their own characteristics and properties. Structure and agency can produce social effect without being articulated in discourse. Furthermore, GiddensÃ¢â¬â¢ rejection of the dualism of structure and agency, regarding it as two sides of the same, replies to the criticism of dualistic constructs. The dialectical approach, and in particular, GiddensÃ¢â¬â¢ structuration theory provides a plausible explanation which, as Giddens elucidates, the two sides of the same coin. In the case aforementioned, this constructs a much more plausible explanation which takes into consideration all factors involved. Giddens suggests Ã¢â¬ËsystemsÃ¢â¬â¢, in this case, the political climate, influence peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s actions, but in turn, social contexts, or Ã¢â¬ËstructuresÃ¢â¬â¢ continue to exist only if they are sustained by peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s repeated actions, for example the actions of Bush and Saddam. Ã¢â¬Å"Giddens concept of the Ã¢â¬Ëduality of structureÃ¢â¬â¢ melds agency and structure into one instead of regarding them as a dualism that consists of two separable albeit connected phenomena; unless and until structure is instantiated it has only virtual existence in the form of memory traces in peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s minds. Ã¢â¬ 10 To conclude, the structure-agency debate is useful insofar as it provides a framework within which to explain social change; and to attribute causation, and this is what Giddens recognises in his two sided coin analogy. Giddens is right that we can only see one side of the coin at a time; this results from our own perceptual limitations when we trying to interpret phenomena. Political theory needs abstraction and over-simplification of the world to enable us to explain phenomena and change; the structure agency debate is one tool to enable us to do this.
Posted by Ken Norwood at 8:07 AM